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The following references were prepared for possible inclusion in the book Balancing the Request to be Good. The publisher thought they would be an unnecessary addition. No attempt has been made to correct any errors and the introductory paragraphs, which are from the original document, have not been changed


This is a selection of the books and papers which were referred to during the course of this study. It has been interspersed with some of the quotations which have had a major influence on the work so far and which signal the direction any future studies might take. As regards the work's future theoretical direction I would single out the passages taken from the book The Neuronal Man by Jean-Pierre Changeux. These are given extensive coverage because the possibility of finding connections between the concept of symbolic constructions and neuronal assemblies is viewed as the most interesting prospect.

Of the three writers whose ideas were indispensible to the outcome of the work, Ronald D. Fairbairn, Lawrence Kubie and Suzanne Langer, too much of what they wrote was read and recorded to be presented here. This statement is made in acknowledgment of their special influence.

Mention of a witch in the paper by Hawkey below (The Witch and the Bogey)
has prompted the inclusion of this image on the page
I can remember clearly returning to the box on which I kept the story book
to find this witch placed alongside my pen


Abenheimer, K. M. (1945). On Narcissism, British Journal of Medical
Psychology. Vol. XX. pp.322-329

Abraham, K. (1923). Two Contributions to the Study of Symbols in
Clinical Papers and Essays on Psychoanalysis. Hogarth Press. Instituteof Psychoanalysis. 1955

Abraham, K. (1913). Dreams and Myths. A Study in Race Psychology Johnson Reprint. New York. 1970.

Ackerman, N. W. (1937). Constructive and Destructive Tendencies in Children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Vol. VII. pp.301-319

Adler, G. (1951). Notes Regarding The Dynamics Of The Self. British
Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXIV. pp. 97-106

Adrian, E. D. (1946). The Mental and Physical Origins of Behaviour.
International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. XXVII Part 2. pp. 1-6

Albino, Ronald C. (1954). Defenses Against Aggression in the Play ofYoung Children. British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. .XXVII pp.61-71

Alexander, Franz. (1958). A Contribution to the Theory of Play
Psychoanalytic Quarterly. Vol. XXVII. pp. 175-193

Allen, A. (1965). Stealing as a Defense. Psychoanalytic Quarterly.
Vol. XXXIV pp.572-583

Allport, Gordon W. (1924-5). Eidetic Imagery. British Journal of
Psychology. Vol. XV. pp. 99-120

Alpert, A. (1959). Reversibility of Pathological Fixations associated
with maternal deprivation in infancy. The Psychoanalytic Study of the
Child. Vol. XIV. pp.99-120

Anthony, E. J. (1956). The Significance of Jean Piaget for Child
Psychiatry. British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXIX. pp.20-34

‘Between two and seven the child constructs a representative world. He repeats the evolution completed on the sensori motor plane. The object is distorted by the egocentric perspective of the child, and is alive. Imitation and suggestibility are at their maximum.' p.24

Appleton, L. E. (1910). A Comparative Study of the Play Activities
of Adult Savages and Civilised Children. Chicago University Press

Archer, R. A. (1910). Spontaneous Constructions and Primitive
Activities of Children Analogous to those of Primitive Man.
Journal of Psychology. Vol. 21. pp 114-.150

Arieti, S. (1978). On Schizophrenia, Phobias, Depression,
Psychotherapy and the Farther Shores of Psychiatry. Brunner/Mazel, Inc. New York

Arieti, S., (1976). Creativity: The Magic Synthesis. New York. Basis

‘Creativity is one of the major means by which the human being liberates himself from the fetters, not only of his conditioned responses but also of his usual choices.' p.4.

‘The creative process is a way of fulfilling the longing or search for a new object or state of experience or existence that is not easily found or attained.' p.6.

‘It could be that the material committed to memory must reverberate in the neuronal circuits outside of consciousness in order to make lasting connections.' p. 19

‘Images soon constitute the foundation of the inner reality, which in human psychology is as important as (and in some respects more important than ) external reality. Imagery not only helps the individual to understand the world better it also helps him to create a surrogate for the world.' p.44

Arieti, S., (1974). Interpretation of Schizophrenia. Crosby Lockwood
Staples. London

Arnheim, R., (1953). Artistic Symbols, Freudian and Otherwise.
Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. Vol. XXII. pp.93-97

Arnheim, R., (1970). Visual Thinking. Faber and Faber. London

" Characteristic of thought processes quite in general are also the confused or ugly forms that come about when a person abandons a well-structured conception in order to proceed to a higher more complex and more adequate one." p. 266?*

Arlow, Jacob A., (1953). Notes On Oral Symbolism. Psychoanalytic
Quarterly. Vol. XXII. pp.63-74

‘In summarizing the literature on pyromania, Fenichel ( see The psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis, p.371.) states that in the incendiary perversion intense sadistic strivings govern the sexual life, the destructive force of the fire serving as a symbol for the intensity of the sexual urge.' p.63

‘The imagery of language demonstrates how fire is unconsciously connected symbolically with oral drives. In most languages the word for burning is related to the word for devouring or consuming and in some languages, such as the Hebrew, 'to burn up' is identical with 'to eat'. In the English language a fire is fed, is described as possessing tongues which lick, and flames which consume. The most notorious abode of fire, Hell, is described as yawning for its victims who must inexorably pass into its mouth or throat or through its jaws.' p. 69

Bach, G. R. (1945). Young Children's Play Fantasies. Psychological
Monographs. 59. No.2. Whole NO. 272. pp.1-69

Balint, Michael. (1952). Notes on the Dissolution of Object
Representation in Modern Art. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. Vol.10, pp.323- 327

Balint. Michael. (1956). Pleasure, Object and Libido. Some
reflections on Fairbairn's' Modifications on Psychoanalytic Theory.
British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXIX. pp.162-167

Balint, M. (1958). The Concept of Subject and Object in
Psychoanalysis. British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXI. pp.83-91

Balint, M., (1968). The Basic Fault: Therapeutic Aspects of
Regression. London Tavistock Publications

Balint, Michael. (1969). Trauma and Object Relationship.
International Journal of Psycho-analysis. Vol. 50. pp. 429-435

Barnes. E. (1896). A Study in Children's Interests in Studies in
Education. Stanford University

Bartlett. F. C. (1920-21). The Function of Images. British Journal of
Psychology. Vol.XI. pp. 320-327

Bartlett, F. C. (1925). Feeling, Imaging and Thinking. British
Journal of Psychology. XVI. pp.16-28

Baruch, D. W. (1941). Aggression during Doll Play in a Pre-school
Child. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Vol. 11. pp.252-260

Bates, Elizabeth., (1979). The Emergence of Symbols: Ontogeny and Phylogeny, in Children's Language and Communication. Ed. Collins W. A. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey

Bemporad, Jules R. (1967). Perceptual Disorders in Schizophrenia.
American Journal of Psychiatry. 123. 2. pp.971-976

Benassy, M. & Diaktine R. (1964). On the Ontogenesis of Fantasy.
International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. 45. pp. 171-179

Bender, L. (1936). Principles of Form in the Play of Children.
Journal of Genetic Psychology. Vol. 49. pp.254 -261

Bender, L., (1947). Childhood Schizophrenia. American Journal of
Orthopsychiatry. Vol.XVII. pp.40-56

Beres, D., (1960). Perception, Imagination, and Reality.
International Journal of Psycho-analysis. Vol. XXXXI. pp.327-334.
‘each organism creates from the raw sense data of the external world its own perceptual world.' p. 5

‘The infant progresses from its primitive state of undifferentiation to
the separation of self and non-self. There is a constant interaction
of percepts of stimuli from the outer world, the body, and their organization and synthesis by the ego. Responses to stimuli are mediated as the child develops and his ego functions mature, almost exclusively through mental representations. Mental functioning takes on its characteristic and unique human quality- perceptions of inner drives, affects, are all somehow registered in the mind by psychic representations and it is to these reresentations that the energies of the instinctual drives are directed in the process that we recognize as 'cathexis.' ' p. 329

‘symbol formation is a basic component of human psychic activity related to the ego's function of mediating between the external world and the inner drives.' p.330

‘The imaginative process, the capacity to form mental representations, including symbols, has a developmental history. The new-born infant does not have this capacity , and we may assume a pre-symbolic phase in early infancy during which response to stimuli is somatic and physiological, without symbolic content. Only as the imaginative processes of the ego develop the capacity to form mental representations do the physiological functions assume symbolic meaning and enter into the clinical picture of organ neurosis, hypochondriasis, or conversion hysteria", p.331

Berndtson, A., (1955-56). Semblance, Symbol and Expression in the Aesthetics of Suzanne Langer. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 14. pp.489-502

Blanco, Matte. (1941). On Introjection and the Process of Psychic
Metabolism. International Journal of Psycho-analysis. Vol. XXII. pp.17-36

Brenner, C. (1953). An addendum to Freud's Theory of Anxiety.
International Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol. XXXIV. pp.18-24

‘This would seem to offer the interesting possibility that the emotion experienced by the infant in the state of psychic helplessness which we call the traumatic situation is the forebear of depression as well as anxiety.' p.23

Brierly. M. (1939). A Prefatory Note on ‘Internalised Objects' and
Depression. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. XX. pp.-241-245

Brierly, M. (1942). Internal Oblects and Theory. International
Journal Of Psychoanalysis. Vol. XXIII. pp.107-112

Bruner J. S. Olver R. R. and Greenfield P. M. et. al. (1966). Studies in Cognitive Growth. John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Cassirer, E. (1953-1957). The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. 3 vols.
New Haven. Yale University Press

Cattel, R. B. and Wenig, P W. (1952). Dynamic and Cognitive Factors Controlling Misperception. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology. Vol.47, pp.797-809

Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1985). Neuronal Man. The Biology of the
Mind. Oxford University Press

‘The hypothesis adopted here is that percept, memory image, and concept constitute different forms or states of the basic material infrastructure of mental representation, which we gather together under the general term "mental objects.' p. 133

‘The mental object is identified as the physical state created by 157
correlated, transient activity, both electrical and chemical, in a large population or "assembly" of neurons in specific cortical areas. This assembly, which can be described mathematically by a neuronal graph, is discrete, closed, and autonomous, but not homogeneous. It is made up of neurons possessing different singularities, laid down in the course of embryonic and postnatal development. The earmark of the mental object is thus initially determined or coded by the mosaic (or graph) of neuronal singularities and by a state of activity in terms of the number and frequency of impulses flowing in the circuits they form. p.138

The key postulate of the theory is that the brain spontaneously generates crude, transient representations with graphs that vary from one instant to the other. These particular mental objects, or pre-representations , exist before the interaction with the outside world. They arise from the recombination of preexisting sets of neurons or neuronal assemblies, and their diversity is thus great. p139

The number of neurons enlisted by a particular mental object is obviously not known. As an example, let us look at the percept. It may well use a significant fraction of the neurons present in several square centimetres of sensory cortex. If there are something like ten million neurons per square centimetre of cortical surface, and if only 10 per cent of these cells contribute to the percept, one still has something like a million neurons recruited (close to the number of axons present in the optic nerve). If we now suppose that the pre-representations arise spontaneously from a similar number of neurons, then the number of possible combinations of a few millions neurons scattered among tens of billlions becomes enormous. Is it enough to explain the diversity of mental representations, images and concepts? p.141

The neurons participating in assemblies of concepts will be both dispersed and multimodal, or perhaps amodal. This should bestow on them very rich "associative" properties, allowing them to link together and above all to combine. Thus, it becomes plausible that such assemblies, made up of oscilllatory neurons with high spontaneous activity, could recombine among themselves. This recombining activity would represent a "generator of hypothesies," a mechanism of diversification essential for the genesis of pre-representations and subsequent selection of new concepts. In a word, it would be the substrate of imagination. It would also account for the ‘simulation' of future behaviour in the face of a new situation. In order for a system to organize itself, it is obvious that there must be more than simple creation of diversity. A selection is possible, as we have seen, by the comparison of mental objects in terms of their resonance or disonance.p.169

The fundamental capacity of the brain of the higher vertebrates, particularly humans, involves the construction of "representations," either as a result of interaction with the environment or spontaneously by an internal focusing of attention. If one adopts the theory put forward here, these representations are built up by the activation of neurons, whose dispersion throughout multiple cortical areas determine the figurative or abstract character of the representation. A mental object is by definition a transient event. It is dynamic and fleeting, lasting only fractions of a second. The singularities of the neurons that form it, however, are much more stable; they are built up during development by mechanisms involving internal genetic expressions and regulations stemming from a chain of reciprocal interactions with the environment. Thus, the epigenic component of neuronal singularities itself constitutes a 'representation," written in the "wiring" between the nerve cells. This imprint of the physical and socio cultural world remains stable for many years, even throughout the life of an individual, p.277.
Cohn, R. (1959). A Correlation of Symbol Organisation with Brain
Function. American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 16. pp.1001-1008

Despert, L. J. (1940). A Method of Study for the Personality
Reactions in Pre-school Children by Means of Analysis of their Play.
Journal of Psychology Vol. 9. pp. 17-29
Despert, L. J. (1949). Dreams in Children of Preschool
Age Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol. lll-IV. pp.141-180

‘Animals as motives in young children's dreams are almost always sadistic and often totally destructive. They have characteristics which are of great significance, in that while they may vary in size and shape, their activities are identical; they bite and devour the child; and they often chase him, whether as a preliminary to final destruction or as an unique goal.' p.162

‘In analyzing children's dreams in relation to the age of the subject, it is striking that the very young child (2-years old in this series) mostly dreams of being bitten, devoured, and chased.' p172

‘The sequence in which the patterns of anxiety chronologically unfold in the dreams of young children is highly significant. There is first the fear of being destroyed or chased; then unfamiliar, powerful destructive animals are named; and finally, in response to actual traumatic experiences in the life of the child, the anxiety may be transferred to the animal which actually threatened or attacked the child, or to any painful event which actually took place.' p.174.
Doob, Leonard W. (1972). The Function and Nature of Imagery, ed.
Peter W. Sheehan. Academic Press New York

Douglas. M. (1973). Natural Symbols; explorations of cosmology.
Penguin Books Ltd

Edelson Marshall. (1973). Language and Dreams. The Interpretation of Dreams Revisited. Psychanalytic Study of the Child. Vol. 27. pp.203-282

Ehrenzweig Anton. (1948). Unconscious Form Creation in Art.
British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXI. pp.185-214. and 22.

Eissler. K. R. (1966). A Note on Trauma, Dream Anxiety and
Schizophrenia. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. 21. pp.17-50

Ekstein, R. and Wallerstein, M. S. W. (1954). Observations on the
Psychology of Borderline and Psychotic Children. Psychoanalytic Study
of the Child. Vol. IX. pp.344-369

Ekstein. R. and Caruth. E. (1965). The Working Alliance with the
Monster.Bulletin of the Meninger Clinic. Vol. 29. July. pp. 189-197

Erikson, E. H. (Homburger. E.). (1937). Configurations in Play. Clinical Notes. Psychoanalytic Quarterly Vol. 6. pp.139-214

Erikson, E. H. (1940). Studies in the Interpretation of Play. Clinical
Observations of Play Disruption in Young Children. Genetic Psychology Monograms. 22. pp.557-671

Fenichel Otto. [1946]. *The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neuroses. W.W.Norton & Co. New York.

‘The dangers feared may be entirely fantastic in so far as the world is 'progressively misunderstood' by the child. The violent force of his own repressed impulses is projected and makes him expect drastic punishments.' p.5*

Ferenczi, S. (1933). Confusion of Tongues between the Adult and the Child. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol.30. No.4. 1949.pp.225-230

‘The -I should like to say imposing -phenomena, the almost hallucinatory repetitions of traumatic experiences which began to accumulate in my daily practice, seemed to justify the hope that by this abreaction large quantities of repressed affects might obtain acceptance by the conscious mind and that the formation of new symptoms, especially when the superstructure of the affects had been sufficiently loosened by the analytic work, might be ended.' p.225

I obtained above all new corroborative evidence for my supposition that the trauma, especially the sexual trauma, as the pathogenic factor cannot be valued highly enough. Even children of very respectable, sincerely puritanical families, fall victim to real violence or rape much more often than one had dared to suppose. Either it is the parents who try to find a substitute gratification in this pathological way for their frustration, or it is people thought to be trustworthy such as relatives (uncles, aunts, grandparents), governesses or servants, who misuse the ignorance and innocence of the child. The immediate explanation - that these are only sexual phantasies of the child, a kind of hysterical lying - is unfortunately made invalid by the number of such confessions, e.g. of assaults upon children, committed by patients actually in analysis. That is why I was not surprised when recently a philanthropically-minded teacher told me, despairingly, that in five upper class families the governesses were living a regular sexual life with boys of nine to eleven years old." p.227

‘...the weak and undeveloped personality reacts to sudden unpleasure not by defence, but by anxiety ridden identification and by introjection of the menacing person or aggressor. Only with the help of this hypothesis can I understand why my patients refused so obstinately to follow my advice to react to unjust or unkind treatment with pain or with hatred and defence.' p.228

Ferenczi, S. (1909). Transference and Introjection. Contributions to
Psychoanalysis. Richard Badger. Boston

Flavell J. H. (1983). Cognitive Development, in Handbook of Child
Psychology. Ed. Paul H. Mussen. John Wiley and Sons. New York

Flavell, J. H. (1963). The Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget.
New York. Van Nostrand

Fordham, M. and Adler, G. (1951). Some Observations on Self in
Childhood. British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXIV. pp.83-96

Fordham, M. (1944). The Life in Childhood.. Kegan Paul, Trench,
Trubner & Co..London Ltd

Fordham, M. (1949). Discussion on Archetypes and Internal
Objects. 1.On the reality of archetypes. British Journal of Medical
Psychology. Vol XXII. pp.3-7

Fraiberg, S. [1969]. Libidinal object constancy and mental
representation. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. 24. pp.9-47

Fraiberg, Selma H. (1969). Libidinal object constancy and mental
representation. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol.XXIV, pp.9-47

Fraiberg, Selma H. (1959). The Magic Years. Menthuen & Co Ltd.
Frank, A. (1969). The Unrememorable and the Unforgettable; Passive Primal Repression. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. 24. pp.48-77

Frank, Lawrence. K. (1939). Projective Methods for the Study of the
Personality. Journal of Psychology. 8. pp.389-413

French, T. (1954). The Integration of Behaviour. The Integrative
Process in Dreams. Vol. II. University of Chicago Press

Freud, A. (1965). Normality and Pathology in Childhood. New York.
International Universities Press

‘The ego of the young child had the developmental task to master on the one hand in the external world and on the other hand the chaotic emotional states which exist within himself. It gains its victories and advances whenever such impressions are grasped, put into thoughts or words and submitted to the secondary process.' p32
Friedman, Paul. (1952). The Bridge. A Study in Symbolism.
Psychoanalytic Quarterly. Vol.21. No. 1. pp.49-80

Furnam, Edna. (1971). Some Thoughts on Re-construction in Child
Analysis. Psychoanalytic Study of The Child. Vol. 26. pp.372-385 .Hogarth Press London

‘Kris pointed out that the value of reconstructive work lies in its capacity to free the energy previously used in the cathexis of repressed experiences, thus making it available for neutralization. The greater the ego's ability to neutralize, the greater are the potential benefits of the lifting repression. Kris (1956) further stated that the success of the reconstructive work and its value for the patient depend among other things, on repression being the central defense, and on the lifting of repression lessening the investment of the subsidiary defenses, which in turn frees energy for insight and integration.' p. 376

Galenson, Eleanor, and Roiphe,Herman. (1971). The Impact of Early Sexual Discovery on Mood, Defensive Organizatiion and Symbolization.Psycho-analytic Study of the Child. Vol. 26. pp.195 -216

Geelard, Elisabeth, R. (1958). Borderline States in Childhood and
Adolescence. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Volume XIII. pp.279-295

Geelard, Elisabeth, R. (1946). A Contribution to the Problem of
Psychosis in Childhood. Psycho-analytic Study of the Child. Vol. XIII.

Gero-Heymann, E. [1955]. A Short Communication on a Traumatic
Episode in a Child of Two Years and Seven Months. Psychoanalytic
Study of the Child. Vol.X. pp.376-380

Giovacchini P. [1966]. Dreams and the Creative Process. British
Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXXIX. pp105-115

‘Patients with character disorders, where the basic psychopathology is an ego defect, sometimes reflect regression and ego distortion in their dreams by such elements as crumbling houses, having the floor collapse underneath them or the ceiling falling. These manifest
elements, over determined as they are frequently represent the ego and its loss of synthesis. Consequently I have referred to such dreams as representational, the dream image being, at one level a pictorial self observation." p105.
‘Shifts and changes in the dream picture reflect corresponding shifts in the psychic apparatus and are of considerable value in confirming or in helping us modify various hypotheses that are primarily concerned with different levels of ego operations.' p. 114

"The settings of these dreams consisted of a room and various pieces of furniture which it was believed referred to the patients psychic apparatus, primarily the ego." p.115

Ginott, H. G. (1961). Group psychotherapy with children: the theory
and practice of play therapy. Mcgraw Hill

Goldman, A. (1960). Symbolic Representation in Schizophrenia.
Journal of Personality. 28. pp.293-316

Gordon, Rosemary. (1972). A Very Private World, in The Function
and Nature of Imagery. Ed. Peter W. Sheehan. Academic Press. New York and London

‘In individual development the experiencing of images might be regarded as the first beginning of conscious activity, and of the capacity to abstract. It also aids the process of memory. Above all it delivers the infant from the primary and exclusive dependence on sensation, that is from sole dependence on what is immediately and concretely present. One of the consequences of this expansion of psychic activity is the individual's growing capacity to refrain from the immediate enactment of his reactions: instead he will become progressively more able to delay his responses and to bring them instead into relationship with earlier and perhaps more positive experiences of the same person or situation. In other words, through the development of images and hence memory, emotional reactions can become organized and contained in the pattern of the sentiment....'p.76

Greenacre. P. (1969). The Fetish and the Transitional Object.
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol. XXIV. pp. 144-164

Greenacre, P. (1957). The Childhood of the Artist. Psychoanalytic
Study of the Child. Vol. XII. pp.47-72

Greenacre. P. (1959). Play in Relation to Creative Imagination.
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, pp.61-80

Grinberg. Leon. (1968). On Acting Out and its Role in the
Psychoanalytic Process. International Journal of Psychoanalysis.
Vol.49, pp.171-178

Guntrip, H. (1961). Personality Structure and Human Interaction.
The Developing Synthesis of Psycho-dynamic Theory. The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis

'Enormous numbers of children find their parents too unreliable and disturbing to be coped with successfully.' p. 385

‘Deprivation imparts an aggressive quality to unsatisfied needs, and oral incorporation turns into the impulse to sadistic devouring.' p.386

‘We should qualify 'aggressive' more explicitly as 'angrily aggressive' for there is a playful aggressiveness" or energetic assertiveness' which is natural and healthy. The infant comes to feel both dangerous to his love-objects and persecuted by them in retaliation.' p.386

‘In unconscious phantasy emerging in dreams this oral sadism gives rise to symbols of devouring wild animals and fills the psyche with terror. One patient had hallucinations of leopards leaping across the room with open bloody mouths.' p.387

Hammer, Emanuel F. (1958). The Clinical Application of Protective
Drawings. Springfield

Harris Dale B. (1963). Childrens Drawings as Measures of
Intellectual Maturity. George G. Harrap 7 Co. Ltd. London

Hawkey, Lawrey. M. (1948). The Witch and the Bogey. Archetypes in the Case Study of a Child. British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXI. pp.12-29

‘Because of her guilt it was the 'bad' father (the bogey) who got on top of her. But the mother and the father were in league together and after getting on top of her the bogey gave her up to the witch, ‘p.27

‘Nevertheless, the fear of being eaten by the witch could not be
entirely explained in terms of her relationship with her real mother. In fact her mother did not appear to be over-protective or devouring. The witch is not the real mother but is the archetype of the devouring mother' p.28

Heimann. P. (1952). Certain Functions of Introjection and Projection
in Early Infancy, in Developments in Psychoanalysis, by Klein M. et al. London. Hogarth Press

Heimann P. (1949). Some notes on the Psycho-Analytic Concept of
Introjected Objects. British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXII

Hein.Hilde (1968). Play as an Aesthetic Concept. Journal of
Aesthetics and Art Criticism. Vol. XXVII No.1. pp.67-71

Hicks, G. Daives. (1924-5). On the nature of Images. British Journal
of Psychology. XV. pp.121-48

Hoffer W. (1947). Mouth, Hand and Ego-Integration. Psychoanalytic
Study of the Child. Vol. lll-IV. pp.49-56

Hoffer W. (1950). Oral Aggressiveness and Ego Development.
International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. 31. pp. 156-160

Hook R. H. (1979). Fantasy and Symbol. Academic Press.
Horowitz. M. (1967). Visual Imagery and Cognitive Organization.
American Journal of Psychiatry. 123. pp.938-946

‘The ability to form visual images without perception of external objects is one of man's most intriguing capacities. In the pictorializations of dreams and hallucinations this ability achieves astonishing vividness and in the less dramatic pictorializations of the 'mind's eye' everyday thoughts and feelings gain symbolic depiction." p.110

99 Horowitz M. (1970). Psychodynamics of Image Formation, in Image Formation and Cognition. Appleton. Century

‘Clinically, we see that following a traumatic experience that is
witnessed visually, certain distortions of ordinary cognitive experience may occur. Instead of becoming reduced in intensity, the images of the traumatic event may return to awareness with unusual vividness, also, and this is significant, these vivid images apparently escape volitional control. At times they emerge in a peremptory manner in spite of efforts to avoid or dispel them. At other times there is an amnesia/for the event; descriptive statements/and recollection images cannot be formed at will. Sometimes amnesia and peremptory revisualization occur in the same person in separable phases after the traumatic episode. With recovery from the post-traumatic state the images become dim, the events can be discussed verbally, and the person regains the capacity to recall the events when he wishes to and . importantly, to repress the memory if he has to.' p.78

"The compulsion to repeat trauma works as follows. A harrowing or frightening experience exceeded a persons state of preparedness and / or capacity to master the resulting simulations and effects. A temporary protective mechanism shunted the experience out of awareness where it resided as a kind on undigested foreign body; the memory traces were still extremely vivid and the affects were still of potentially overwhelmingly intensity. At some later date 'repetition compulsion' asserted itself- the person relived the experience repeatedly until it was mastered- until associated feelings such as helplessness diminished. Until such mastery of affects, recall of the experience tended to evoke very vivid images. With mastery the memory traces were processed for storage in the usual way; they were stripped of sensory intensity and related to various schemata and concepts.' P.120

‘Themes of disintegration are common in schizophrenic graphic products, but it is important to note the frequency of an opposing content: themes of reconstruction and integration. They may consist of inscription of the alphabet, the series of numerals, all the states of the union, addresses, names, or mathematical figures. Of larger proportion entire cosmologies may be drawn, or systems involving religious figures, metaphysical symbols, or fantastic machines. I believe these all may be grouped as symbolic efforts at integration, control, organization, and reconstruction of the self.' p.275

‘The construction of an external picture modifies the internal image; the external picture may stimulate further image formation which is then used to elaborate the external picture.' p.267

100. Horowitz, Mardi J. (1972). Image Formation: Clinical Observations and a Cognitive Model in The Function and Nature of Imagery, ed. Peter W. Sheehan. Academic Press. New York and London

‘Stress-related information is (by definition of psychological stress ) of great subjective importance. But it is also ( again by definition of stress) difficult to process. That is, stress related information is harder to assimilate in terms of all its associated meanings and /t is harder to accommodate existing schemata, expectancies, and action plans to the stress -related information.

Suppose, then that processing the stressful information (of internal or external origin ) activates ideational or emotional conflicts. Running the program then creates a danger situation because of the possible evocation of such responses as intense fear, anxiety, guilt shame, despair, otr other negative affects. Subjective appraisal of the information -the knowledge that such affects can be generated -causes inhibition of the processing of this information.' p.304

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Comparison processes. These procedures compare two data structures or parts thereof and return a match/ mismatch decision or a measure of the degree of similarity( defined over a specific metric) between representations.

Transformation processes. There are two very general classes of transformation processes, alterations and productions. Alteration transformations operate to alter a given data structure by changing its contents (e.g., by adding or deleting an item on a list) or re-organizing it (e.g. by reordering items on a list). Production transformations, in contrast, leave the initial data structure intact but use it as an impetus either to replace or to supplement it with a new data structure.' pp 47-48

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‘The words 'good' and 'bad' are obviously used here in the simplest possible sense- in fact as a small child would use them- as expressing the quality of feeling concerned and unrelated to any other standard. Moral judgements, for instance, as to what is good or bad do not necessarily coincide with what is spontaneously felt by the person in himself to be so often quite the contrary. The same applies to matters of health, of pleasure, of taste; the sole criterion is the pleasure-principle.

'In the cradle we were all originally in the condition of the despised person who 'knows nothing about' any external criteria but 'simply knows what he likes', namely, what gives him pleasure or unpleasure; and however much the forms taken by our pleasures may alter as life proceeds, it is fundamentally always on the same principle that our good and bad experiences arise.' Note 3. p 162

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‘The happiest thought of Einstein's life as described here was the formulation that provided the foundation for the general theory of relativity. From the exposition, it is clear that this "happiest thought" was his underscored (here italicised) phrase, "Thus, for an observer in free fall from the roof of a house there exists, during his fall, no gravitational field.' p. 39

‘The idea of a person falling from the roof of a house suggests a visual conception. Rather than the primary process visual imagery emphasized by regression theories of creativity, however, Einstein's probable visualization in this case very likely involved another type of high-level creative thinking (Homospatial thinking), which I have described extensively elsewhere.' p. 41

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‘The construction of the representational world is a product of ego functions, and the self and object representations are part of the representational world.
The representational world might be compared to a stage set within a theatre. The characters on the stage represent the child's various objects, as well as the child himself The theatre which contains the stage would correspond to aspects of the ego, and the various functions such as scene shifting, raising or lowering the curtain, and all the machinery auxiliary to the actual stage production would respond to those ego functions of which we are not normally aware.' p. 134

‘It is a function of the ego to construct a representational world from the original undifferentiated sensorium of the infant.' p.136

‘The representational world provides the material for the ego's perpetual structuring of sensory impulses, for imagination and fantasy, for direct and modified action, for language, symbols, and for trial action in thought,' p.136

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The ego becomes strengthened by the recovery of a past it is no longer necessary to deny or ignore both on its own account or on the account of others. The past becomes assimilated and mastered through emotional re-living and understanding, and the personality becomes enriched through a transvaluation of past experiences. Not only is the psychical ego extended but bodily powers themselves are enhanced, recovered or developed.' p. 17

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The function of reparative mastery is the retroactive attempt to magically correct traumatic experiences which could not be avoided.' p.223

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‘Magic mastery through pictorial representation is a regression to the identical stage of adaptation to reality in which the original traumata, now pressing for reparation, occurred mainly to the preverbal phase. The technique used in therapeutic painting is on a level with primitive pictorial thought. It is of advantage that both as to mode of thinking and of expression, it is on the same plane as unconscious thought itself.

This form of thinking is alien to the ego and therefore a certain degree of effort and practice is required to overcome ego resistance, not only in the patient, but judging by my experience in the analyst as well.' p.230

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‘It is widely recognised today that change may occur without verbally articulated insights and that involvement in activities reaching beyond the self may bring about rather than follow internal change.'

‘In the terminology of Susanne Langer the business of the arts is to give form to feeling: and this is the basic method whereby man creates his world. Every child needs to be an artist in so fart as he must find a means to conceive himself and the world around him and to establish a relation between the two. In the beginning the inner chaos of feelings and impulse is matched by a chaos of sensory impressions equally overwhelming. (But the task does not end with childhood and the arts serve throughout life as the meeting ground of the inner and outer
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Rapaport It begins with mental registrations (ideas and images), as
preceding mental representations, which in turn make possible mankind's unique ability to form and use symbols. However, mental registration cannot be transformed into mental representation except as raw sense data are modified by the individual in the light of his own experiences. Each of us must create his own perception of the world. Texture must become feeling; sound must become listening; sight must become seeing; and the sensation must become perception. The integration of these processes creates the core of the healthy self.' p.382


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