Abenheimer, K. M. (1945).
On Narcissism, British Journal of Medical
Psychology. Vol. XX. pp.322-329
Abraham, K. (1923). Two Contributions to
the Study of Symbols in
Clinical Papers and Essays on Psychoanalysis. Hogarth Press. Instituteof Psychoanalysis. 1955
(1913). Dreams and Myths. A Study in Race Psychology Johnson Reprint. New York. 1970.
Ackerman, N. W. (1937). Constructive
and Destructive Tendencies in Children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Vol. VII. pp.301-319
Adler, G. (1951). Notes Regarding
The Dynamics Of The Self. British
Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXIV. pp. 97-106
Adrian, E. D. (1946). The Mental
and Physical Origins of Behaviour.
International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. XXVII Part 2. pp. 1-6
C. (1954). Defenses Against Aggression in the Play ofYoung Children. British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. .XXVII pp.61-71
Franz. (1958). A Contribution to the Theory of Play
Psychoanalytic Quarterly. Vol. XXVII. pp. 175-193
(1965). Stealing as a Defense. Psychoanalytic Quarterly.
Vol. XXXIV pp.572-583
Allport, Gordon W. (1924-5). Eidetic Imagery. British Journal of
Psychology. Vol. XV. pp. 99-120
(1959). Reversibility of Pathological Fixations associated
with maternal deprivation in infancy. The Psychoanalytic
Study of the
Child. Vol. XIV. pp.99-120
Anthony, E. J. (1956). The Significance of Jean Piaget for Child
British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXIX. pp.20-34
‘Between two and seven the child constructs a representative
world. He repeats the evolution completed on the sensori motor plane. The object is distorted by the egocentric perspective
of the child, and is alive. Imitation and suggestibility are at their maximum.' p.24
Appleton, L. E. (1910). A Comparative
Study of the Play Activities
of Adult Savages and Civilised Children. Chicago University Press
Archer, R. A. (1910). Spontaneous
Constructions and Primitive
Activities of Children Analogous to those of Primitive Man. American
Journal of Psychology. Vol. 21. pp 114-.150
Arieti, S. (1978). On Schizophrenia,
Psychotherapy and the Farther Shores of Psychiatry. Brunner/Mazel, Inc. New York
(1976). Creativity: The Magic Synthesis. New York. Basis
is one of the major means by which the human being liberates himself from the fetters, not only of his conditioned responses
but also of his usual choices.' p.4.
‘The creative process is a way of fulfilling the longing or search for
a new object or state of experience or existence that is not easily found or attained.' p.6.
‘It could be that the material
committed to memory must reverberate in the neuronal circuits outside of consciousness in order to make lasting connections.'
‘Images soon constitute the foundation of the inner reality, which in human psychology is as important
as (and in some respects more important than ) external reality. Imagery not only helps the individual to understand the world
better it also helps him to create a surrogate for the world.' p.44
Arieti, S., (1974). Interpretation of Schizophrenia. Crosby
Arnheim, R., (1953). Artistic Symbols, Freudian and Otherwise.
Journal of Aesthetics and Art
Criticism. Vol. XXII. pp.93-97
Arnheim, R., (1970). Visual Thinking. Faber and Faber. London
" Characteristic of thought
processes quite in general are also the confused or ugly forms that come about when a person abandons a well-structured conception
in order to proceed to a higher more complex and more adequate one." p. 266?*
Arlow, Jacob A., (1953). Notes On Oral Symbolism.
Quarterly. Vol. XXII. pp.63-74
‘In summarizing the literature on pyromania, Fenichel ( see The psychoanalytic
Theory of Neurosis, p.371.) states that in the incendiary perversion intense sadistic strivings govern the sexual life, the
destructive force of the fire serving as a symbol for the intensity of the sexual urge.' p.63
‘The imagery of language demonstrates
how fire is unconsciously connected symbolically with oral drives. In most languages the word for burning is related to the
word for devouring or consuming and in some languages, such as the Hebrew, 'to burn up' is identical with 'to
eat'. In the English language a fire is fed, is described as possessing tongues which lick, and flames which consume.
The most notorious abode of fire, Hell, is described as yawning for its victims who must inexorably pass into its mouth or
throat or through its jaws.' p. 69
Bach, G. R. (1945). Young Children's Play Fantasies. Psychological
Monographs. 59. No.2. Whole NO. 272. pp.1-69
Balint, Michael. (1952). Notes on the Dissolution of Object
in Modern Art. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. Vol.10, pp.323- 327
Balint. Michael. (1956). Pleasure, Object
and Libido. Some
reflections on Fairbairn's' Modifications on Psychoanalytic Theory.
British Journal of
Medical Psychology. Vol. XXIX. pp.162-167
Balint, M. (1958). The Concept of Subject and Object in
British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXI. pp.83-91
Balint, M., (1968). The Basic Fault: Therapeutic
Regression. London Tavistock Publications
Balint, Michael. (1969). Trauma and Object Relationship.
International Journal of Psycho-analysis. Vol. 50. pp. 429-435
Barnes. E. (1896). A Study in Children's Interests
in Studies in
Education. Stanford University
Bartlett. F. C. (1920-21). The Function of Images. British Journal of
Psychology. Vol.XI. pp. 320-327
F. C. (1925). Feeling, Imaging and Thinking. British
Journal of Psychology. XVI. pp.16-28
Baruch, D. W. (1941). Aggression
during Doll Play in a Pre-school
Child. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Vol. 11. pp.252-260
(1979). The Emergence of Symbols: Ontogeny and Phylogeny, in Children's Language and Communication. Ed. Collins W. A.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey
Bemporad, Jules R. (1967). Perceptual Disorders in Schizophrenia.
American Journal of Psychiatry. 123. 2. pp.971-976
Benassy, M. & Diaktine R. (1964). On the Ontogenesis of Fantasy.
International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. 45. pp. 171-179
Bender, L. (1936). Principles of Form in the Play of
Journal of Genetic Psychology. Vol. 49. pp.254 -261
Bender, L., (1947). Childhood Schizophrenia. American
Orthopsychiatry. Vol.XVII. pp.40-56
Beres, D., (1960). Perception, Imagination, and Reality.
Journal of Psycho-analysis. Vol. XXXXI. pp.327-334.
‘each organism creates from the raw sense data of the external
world its own perceptual world.' p. 5
‘The infant progresses from its primitive state of undifferentiation
the separation of self and non-self. There is a constant interaction
of percepts of stimuli from the outer
world, the body, and their organization and synthesis by the ego. Responses to stimuli are mediated as the child develops
and his ego functions mature, almost exclusively through mental representations. Mental functioning takes on its characteristic
and unique human quality- perceptions of inner drives, affects, are all somehow registered in the mind by psychic representations
and it is to these reresentations that the energies of the instinctual drives are directed in the process that we recognize
as 'cathexis.' ' p. 329
‘symbol formation is a basic component of human psychic activity related
to the ego's function of mediating between the external world and the inner drives.' p.330
‘The imaginative process,
the capacity to form mental representations, including symbols, has a developmental history. The new-born infant does not
have this capacity , and we may assume a pre-symbolic phase in early infancy during which response to stimuli is somatic and
physiological, without symbolic content. Only as the imaginative processes of the ego develop the capacity to form mental
representations do the physiological functions assume symbolic meaning and enter into the clinical picture of organ neurosis,
hypochondriasis, or conversion hysteria", p.331
Berndtson, A., (1955-56). Semblance, Symbol and Expression in the Aesthetics
of Suzanne Langer. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 14. pp.489-502
Blanco, Matte. (1941). On Introjection
and the Process of Psychic
Metabolism. International Journal of Psycho-analysis. Vol. XXII. pp.17-36
C. (1953). An addendum to Freud's Theory of Anxiety.
International Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol. XXXIV. pp.18-24
would seem to offer the interesting possibility that the emotion experienced by the infant in the state of psychic helplessness
which we call the traumatic situation is the forebear of depression as well as anxiety.' p.23
Brierly. M. (1939). A Prefatory
Note on ‘Internalised Objects' and
Depression. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. XX. pp.-241-245
M. (1942). Internal Oblects and Theory. International
Journal Of Psychoanalysis. Vol. XXIII. pp.107-112
Bruner J. S. Olver R. R. and Greenfield P. M. et. al. (1966).
Studies in Cognitive Growth. John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Cassirer, E. (1953-1957). The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms.
New Haven. Yale University Press
Cattel, R. B. and Wenig, P W. (1952). Dynamic and Cognitive Factors
Controlling Misperception. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology. Vol.47, pp.797-809
(1985). Neuronal Man. The Biology of the
‘The hypothesis adopted here is that percept, memory image, and concept constitute different
forms or states of the basic material infrastructure of mental representation, which we gather together under the general
term "mental objects.' p. 133
‘The mental object is identified as the physical state created by 157
activity, both electrical and chemical, in a large population or "assembly" of neurons in specific cortical areas.
This assembly, which can be described mathematically by a neuronal graph, is discrete, closed, and autonomous, but not homogeneous.
It is made up of neurons possessing different singularities, laid down in the course of embryonic and postnatal development.
The earmark of the mental object is thus initially determined or coded by the mosaic (or graph) of neuronal singularities
and by a state of activity in terms of the number and frequency of impulses flowing in the circuits they form. p.138
key postulate of the theory is that the brain spontaneously generates crude, transient representations with graphs that vary
from one instant to the other. These particular mental objects, or pre-representations , exist before the interaction with
the outside world. They arise from the recombination of preexisting sets of neurons or neuronal assemblies, and their diversity
is thus great. p139
The number of neurons enlisted by a particular mental object is obviously not known. As an example,
let us look at the percept. It may well use a significant fraction of the neurons present in several square centimetres of
sensory cortex. If there are something like ten million neurons per square centimetre of cortical surface, and if only 10
per cent of these cells contribute to the percept, one still has something like a million neurons recruited (close to the
number of axons present in the optic nerve). If we now suppose that the pre-representations arise spontaneously from a similar
number of neurons, then the number of possible combinations of a few millions neurons scattered among tens of billlions becomes
enormous. Is it enough to explain the diversity of mental representations, images and concepts? p.141
The neurons participating in assemblies
of concepts will be both dispersed and multimodal, or perhaps amodal. This should bestow on them very rich "associative"
properties, allowing them to link together and above all to combine. Thus, it becomes plausible that such assemblies, made
up of oscilllatory neurons with high spontaneous activity, could recombine among themselves. This recombining activity would
represent a "generator of hypothesies," a mechanism of diversification essential for the genesis of pre-representations
and subsequent selection of new concepts. In a word, it would be the substrate of imagination. It would also account for the
‘simulation' of future behaviour in the face of a new situation. In order for a system to organize itself, it is
obvious that there must be more than simple creation of diversity. A selection is possible, as we have seen, by the comparison
of mental objects in terms of their resonance or disonance.p.169
The fundamental capacity of the brain of the higher
vertebrates, particularly humans, involves the construction of "representations," either as a result of interaction
with the environment or spontaneously by an internal focusing of attention. If one adopts the theory put forward here, these
representations are built up by the activation of neurons, whose dispersion throughout multiple cortical areas determine the
figurative or abstract character of the representation. A mental object is by definition a transient event. It is dynamic
and fleeting, lasting only fractions of a second. The singularities of the neurons that form it, however, are much more stable;
they are built up during development by mechanisms involving internal genetic expressions and regulations stemming from a
chain of reciprocal interactions with the environment. Thus, the epigenic component of neuronal singularities itself constitutes
a 'representation," written in the "wiring" between the nerve cells. This imprint of the physical and socio
cultural world remains stable for many years, even throughout the life of an individual, p.277.
Cohn, R. (1959). A Correlation
of Symbol Organisation with Brain
Function. American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 16. pp.1001-1008
Despert, L. J. (1940). A
Method of Study for the Personality
Reactions in Pre-school Children by Means of Analysis of their Play.
of Psychology Vol. 9. pp. 17-29
Despert, L. J. (1949). Dreams in Children of Preschool
Age Psychoanalytic Study
of the Child. Vol. lll-IV. pp.141-180
‘Animals as motives in young children's dreams are almost always
sadistic and often totally destructive. They have characteristics which are of great significance, in that while they may
vary in size and shape, their activities are identical; they bite and devour the child; and they often chase him, whether
as a preliminary to final destruction or as an unique goal.' p.162
‘In analyzing children's dreams in relation
to the age of the subject, it is striking that the very young child (2-years old in this series) mostly dreams of being bitten,
devoured, and chased.' p172
‘The sequence in which the patterns of anxiety chronologically unfold in the dreams of young
children is highly significant. There is first the fear of being destroyed or chased; then unfamiliar, powerful destructive
animals are named; and finally, in response to actual traumatic experiences in the life of the child, the anxiety may be transferred
to the animal which actually threatened or attacked the child, or to any painful event which actually took place.' p.174.
Doob, Leonard W. (1972). The Function and Nature of Imagery, ed.
Peter W. Sheehan. Academic Press New York
Douglas. M. (1973). Natural Symbols; explorations of cosmology.
Penguin Books Ltd
Edelson Marshall. (1973). Language and Dreams. The Interpretation of Dreams Revisited. Psychanalytic
Study of the Child. Vol. 27. pp.203-282
Ehrenzweig Anton. (1948). Unconscious Form Creation in Art.
British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXI. pp.185-214. and 22.
Eissler. K. R. (1966). A
Note on Trauma, Dream Anxiety and
Schizophrenia. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. 21. pp.17-50
Ekstein, R. and Wallerstein,
M. S. W. (1954). Observations on the
Psychology of Borderline and Psychotic Children. Psychoanalytic Study
the Child. Vol. IX. pp.344-369
Ekstein. R. and Caruth. E. (1965). The Working Alliance with the
Monster.Bulletin of the Meninger Clinic. Vol. 29. July. pp. 189-197
E. H. (Homburger. E.). (1937). Configurations in Play. Clinical Notes. Psychoanalytic Quarterly Vol. 6. pp.139-214
E. H. (1940). Studies in the Interpretation of Play. Clinical
Observations of Play Disruption in Young Children. Genetic
Psychology Monograms. 22. pp.557-671
Fenichel Otto. . *The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neuroses. W.W.Norton
& Co. New York.
‘The dangers feared may be entirely fantastic in so far as the world is 'progressively
misunderstood' by the child. The violent force of his own repressed impulses is projected and makes him expect drastic
Ferenczi, S. (1933). Confusion of Tongues between the Adult and the Child. International Journal
of Psychoanalysis. Vol.30. No.4. 1949.pp.225-230
‘The -I should like to say imposing -phenomena, the almost hallucinatory
repetitions of traumatic experiences which began to accumulate in my daily practice, seemed to justify the hope that by this
abreaction large quantities of repressed affects might obtain acceptance by the conscious mind and that the formation of new
symptoms, especially when the superstructure of the affects had been sufficiently loosened by the analytic work, might be
I obtained above all new corroborative evidence for my supposition that the trauma, especially the
sexual trauma, as the pathogenic factor cannot be valued highly enough. Even children of very respectable, sincerely puritanical
families, fall victim to real violence or rape much more often than one had dared to suppose. Either it is the parents who
try to find a substitute gratification in this pathological way for their frustration, or it is people thought to be trustworthy
such as relatives (uncles, aunts, grandparents), governesses or servants, who misuse the ignorance and innocence of the child.
The immediate explanation - that these are only sexual phantasies of the child, a kind of hysterical lying - is unfortunately
made invalid by the number of such confessions, e.g. of assaults upon children, committed by patients actually in analysis.
That is why I was not surprised when recently a philanthropically-minded teacher told me, despairingly, that in five upper
class families the governesses were living a regular sexual life with boys of nine to eleven years old." p.227
weak and undeveloped personality reacts to sudden unpleasure not by defence, but by anxiety ridden identification and by introjection
of the menacing person or aggressor. Only with the help of this hypothesis can I understand why my patients refused so obstinately
to follow my advice to react to unjust or unkind treatment with pain or with hatred and defence.' p.228
S. (1909). Transference and Introjection. Contributions to
Psychoanalysis. Richard Badger. Boston
Flavell J. H. (1983).
Cognitive Development, in Handbook of Child
Psychology. Ed. Paul H. Mussen. John Wiley and Sons. New York
Flavell, J. H. (1963). The Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget.
New York. Van Nostrand
Fordham, M. and Adler, G.
(1951). Some Observations on Self in
Childhood. British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXIV. pp.83-96
M. (1944). The Life in Childhood.. Kegan Paul, Trench,
Trubner & Co..London Ltd
Fordham, M. (1949). Discussion
on Archetypes and Internal
Objects. 1.On the reality of archetypes. British Journal of Medical
Fraiberg, S. . Libidinal object constancy and mental
Study of the Child. 24. pp.9-47
Fraiberg, Selma H. (1969). Libidinal
object constancy and mental
representation. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol.XXIV, pp.9-47
Fraiberg, Selma H. (1959). The Magic Years. Menthuen & Co Ltd.
Frank, A. (1969).
The Unrememorable and the Unforgettable; Passive Primal Repression. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. 24. pp.48-77
Lawrence. K. (1939). Projective Methods for the Study of the
Personality. Journal of Psychology. 8. pp.389-413
French, T. (1954). The Integration of Behaviour. The Integrative
Process in Dreams. Vol. II. University of Chicago Press
Freud, A. (1965). Normality and Pathology in Childhood. New York.
International Universities Press
‘The ego of the young child had the developmental task to master on
the one hand in the external world and on the other hand the chaotic emotional states which exist within himself. It gains
its victories and advances whenever such impressions are grasped, put into thoughts or words and submitted to the secondary
Friedman, Paul. (1952). The Bridge. A Study in Symbolism.
Psychoanalytic Quarterly. Vol.21.
No. 1. pp.49-80
Furnam, Edna. (1971). Some Thoughts on Re-construction in Child
Analysis. Psychoanalytic Study
of The Child. Vol. 26. pp.372-385 .Hogarth Press London
‘Kris pointed out that the value of reconstructive work lies
in its capacity to free the energy previously used in the cathexis of repressed experiences, thus making it available for
neutralization. The greater the ego's ability to neutralize, the greater are the potential benefits of the lifting repression.
Kris (1956) further stated that the success of the reconstructive work and its value for the patient depend among other things,
on repression being the central defense, and on the lifting of repression lessening the investment of the subsidiary defenses,
which in turn frees energy for insight and integration.' p. 376
Galenson, Eleanor, and Roiphe,Herman. (1971). The Impact
of Early Sexual Discovery on Mood, Defensive Organizatiion and Symbolization.Psycho-analytic Study of the Child. Vol. 26.
Geelard, Elisabeth, R. (1958). Borderline States in Childhood and
Adolescence. Psychoanalytic Study
of the Child. Volume XIII. pp.279-295
Geelard, Elisabeth, R. (1946). A Contribution to the Problem of
in Childhood. Psycho-analytic Study of the Child. Vol. XIII.
Gero-Heymann, E. . A Short Communication
on a Traumatic
Episode in a Child of Two Years and Seven Months. Psychoanalytic
Study of the Child. Vol.X. pp.376-380
P. . Dreams and the Creative Process. British
Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXXIX. pp105-115
with character disorders, where the basic psychopathology is an ego defect, sometimes reflect regression and ego distortion
in their dreams by such elements as crumbling houses, having the floor collapse underneath them or the ceiling falling. These
elements, over determined as they are frequently represent the ego and its loss of synthesis. Consequently
I have referred to such dreams as representational, the dream image being, at one level a pictorial self observation."
‘Shifts and changes in the dream picture reflect corresponding shifts in the psychic apparatus and are of
considerable value in confirming or in helping us modify various hypotheses that are primarily concerned with different levels
of ego operations.' p. 114
"The settings of these dreams consisted of a room and various pieces of furniture which it
was believed referred to the patients psychic apparatus, primarily the ego." p.115
Ginott, H. G. (1961). Group
psychotherapy with children: the theory
and practice of play therapy. Mcgraw Hill
Goldman, A. (1960). Symbolic
Representation in Schizophrenia.
Journal of Personality. 28. pp.293-316
Gordon, Rosemary. (1972). A
Very Private World, in The Function
and Nature of Imagery. Ed. Peter W. Sheehan. Academic Press. New York and London
individual development the experiencing of images might be regarded as the first beginning of conscious activity, and of the
capacity to abstract. It also aids the process of memory. Above all it delivers the infant from the primary and exclusive
dependence on sensation, that is from sole dependence on what is immediately and concretely present. One of the consequences
of this expansion of psychic activity is the individual's growing capacity to refrain from the immediate enactment of
his reactions: instead he will become progressively more able to delay his responses and to bring them instead into relationship
with earlier and perhaps more positive experiences of the same person or situation. In other words, through the development
of images and hence memory, emotional reactions can become organized and contained in the pattern of the sentiment....'p.76
P. (1969). The Fetish and the Transitional Object.
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol. XXIV. pp. 144-164
P. (1957). The Childhood of the Artist. Psychoanalytic
Study of the Child. Vol. XII. pp.47-72
Greenacre. P. (1959). Play
in Relation to Creative Imagination.
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, pp.61-80
Grinberg. Leon. (1968). On Acting Out and its Role in the
Psychoanalytic Process. International
Journal of Psychoanalysis.
Guntrip, H. (1961). Personality Structure and Human Interaction.
The Developing Synthesis of Psycho-dynamic Theory. The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis
numbers of children find their parents too unreliable and disturbing to be coped with successfully.' p. 385
imparts an aggressive quality to unsatisfied needs, and oral incorporation turns into the impulse to sadistic devouring.'
‘We should qualify 'aggressive' more explicitly as 'angrily aggressive' for there is
a playful aggressiveness" or energetic assertiveness' which is natural and healthy. The infant comes to feel both
dangerous to his love-objects and persecuted by them in retaliation.' p.386
‘In unconscious phantasy emerging
in dreams this oral sadism gives rise to symbols of devouring wild animals and fills the psyche with terror. One patient had
hallucinations of leopards leaping across the room with open bloody mouths.' p.387
Hammer, Emanuel F.
(1958). The Clinical Application of Protective
Harris Dale B. (1963). Childrens
Drawings as Measures of
Intellectual Maturity. George G. Harrap 7 Co. Ltd. London
Hawkey, Lawrey. M. (1948).
The Witch and the Bogey. Archetypes in the Case Study of a Child. British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXI. pp.12-29
of her guilt it was the 'bad' father (the bogey) who got on top of her. But the mother and the father were in league
together and after getting on top of her the bogey gave her up to the witch, ‘p.27
‘Nevertheless, the fear of
being eaten by the witch could not be
entirely explained in terms of her relationship with her real mother. In fact
her mother did not appear to be over-protective or devouring. The witch is not the real mother but is the archetype of the
devouring mother' p.28
Heimann. P. (1952). Certain Functions of Introjection and Projection
in Early Infancy, in
Developments in Psychoanalysis, by Klein M. et al. London. Hogarth Press
Heimann P. (1949). Some notes on the Psycho-Analytic
Introjected Objects. British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXII
Hein.Hilde (1968). Play as
an Aesthetic Concept. Journal of
Aesthetics and Art Criticism. Vol. XXVII No.1. pp.67-71
Hicks, G. Daives. (1924-5).
On the nature of Images. British Journal
of Psychology. XV. pp.121-48
Hoffer W. (1947). Mouth, Hand and
Study of the Child. Vol. lll-IV. pp.49-56
Hoffer W. (1950). Oral Aggressiveness
and Ego Development.
International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. 31. pp. 156-160
Hook R. H. (1979). Fantasy
and Symbol. Academic Press.
Horowitz. M. (1967). Visual Imagery and Cognitive Organization.
American Journal of
Psychiatry. 123. pp.938-946
‘The ability to form visual images without perception of external objects is one of man's
most intriguing capacities. In the pictorializations of dreams and hallucinations this ability achieves astonishing vividness
and in the less dramatic pictorializations of the 'mind's eye' everyday thoughts and feelings gain symbolic depiction."
99 Horowitz M. (1970). Psychodynamics of Image Formation, in Image Formation and Cognition. Appleton. Century
we see that following a traumatic experience that is
witnessed visually, certain distortions of ordinary cognitive experience
may occur. Instead of becoming reduced in intensity, the images of the traumatic event may return to awareness with unusual
vividness, also, and this is significant, these vivid images apparently escape volitional control. At times they emerge in
a peremptory manner in spite of efforts to avoid or dispel them. At other times there is an amnesia/for the event; descriptive
statements/and recollection images cannot be formed at will. Sometimes amnesia and peremptory revisualization occur in the
same person in separable phases after the traumatic episode. With recovery from the post-traumatic state the images become
dim, the events can be discussed verbally, and the person regains the capacity to recall the events when he wishes to and
. importantly, to repress the memory if he has to.' p.78
"The compulsion to repeat trauma works as follows.
A harrowing or frightening experience exceeded a persons state of preparedness and / or capacity to master the resulting simulations
and effects. A temporary protective mechanism shunted the experience out of awareness where it resided as a kind on undigested
foreign body; the memory traces were still extremely vivid and the affects were still of potentially overwhelmingly intensity.
At some later date 'repetition compulsion' asserted itself- the person relived the experience repeatedly until it
was mastered- until associated feelings such as helplessness diminished. Until such mastery of affects, recall of the experience
tended to evoke very vivid images. With mastery the memory traces were processed for storage in the usual way; they were stripped
of sensory intensity and related to various schemata and concepts.' P.120
‘Themes of disintegration are
common in schizophrenic graphic products, but it is important to note the frequency of an opposing content: themes of reconstruction
and integration. They may consist of inscription of the alphabet, the series of numerals, all the states of the union, addresses,
names, or mathematical figures. Of larger proportion entire cosmologies may be drawn, or systems involving religious figures,
metaphysical symbols, or fantastic machines. I believe these all may be grouped as symbolic efforts at integration, control,
organization, and reconstruction of the self.' p.275
‘The construction of an external picture modifies
the internal image; the external picture may stimulate further image formation which is then used to elaborate the external
100. Horowitz, Mardi J. (1972). Image Formation: Clinical Observations and a Cognitive Model in The
Function and Nature of Imagery, ed. Peter W. Sheehan. Academic Press. New York and London
is (by definition of psychological stress ) of great subjective importance. But it is also ( again by definition of stress)
difficult to process. That is, stress related information is harder to assimilate in terms of all its associated meanings
and /t is harder to accommodate existing schemata, expectancies, and action plans to the stress -related information.
that processing the stressful information (of internal or external origin ) activates ideational or emotional conflicts. Running
the program then creates a danger situation because of the possible evocation of such responses as intense fear, anxiety,
guilt shame, despair, otr other negative affects. Subjective appraisal of the information -the knowledge that such affects
can be generated -causes inhibition of the processing of this information.' p.304
Huizinga. J. (1944). Homo
Ludens. Routledge & Kegan Paul
Huttenlocher, J. and Higgens Tory E. (1978). Issues in the Study of
Symbolic Development, in Minesota Symposia on Child Psychology.
Vol.11. Ed. Collins W. A. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hillsdale, New Jersey
Irwin C. Eleanor. (1985). Puppets in Therapy. American Journal of
Psychotherapy. Vol. XXXIX.
No. 3 July. pp. 389-400
Isaacs. S. (1948). The Nature and Function of Phantasy.
International Journal of Psychoanalysis.
Vol. XXIX pp. 73-97
Isaacs S. (1940). Temper Tantrums in Early Childhood in their
relation to Internal Ojects.
International Journal of Psychoanalysis.
Vol. XXI. pp.280-293
Isham Mary K. (1921). Example of Displacement of Original
upon Play. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol II. pp.430-431
Izard C. E. and Tomkins
S.S. . Affect and Behaviour. Anxiety
as a Negative Affect in Anxiety and Behaviour. Ed. Spielberger C. New York.
108. Jacobson E. (1954). The Self and the Object World: Vicissitudes of their Infantile Cathexis
and their Influence on Ideational and Affective Development. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol.IX. pp. 75-127
H. M. (1962). Infantile Narcissistic Trauma. International
Journal of Psychhanalysis. Vol. XLIII. pp.69-79
G. (1926). Projection. International Journal of Psycho
analysis. Vol. VII. pp.353-358
Jones E. (1920). The Theory of Symbolism in Papers
Psychoanalysis. 2nd Edition. Balliere, Tindall and Cox. pp.129-186
Kalff D. M. (1971). Sandplay:
mirror of a child's psyche. San
Kamman G. R. (1961). Traumatic Neurosis. Archives of Neurology
and Psychiatry. 65. May. pp.593-603
E. & Peto A. (1956). Contributions to the Theory of Play.
British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol. XXIX. pp.
Katan Anny. (1961). Some Thoughts About The Role of
Verbalization in Early Childhood. Psychoanalytic
Study of the Child. Vol. XVI. pp.184-188
Kestenbaum Clarice J. (1985). The Creative Process in Child
American Journal of Psychotherapy. Vol.39. No.4.
Khan M. M. R. (1964). Ego Distortion,
Cumulative Trauma and the
Role of Reconstruction in the Analytic Situation. International Journalof Psycho-analysis.
Khan, M. M. R., (1972). Exorcism of the Intrusive Ego-Alien Factors
in the Analytic Situation
and Process in Tactic and Techniques. Ed. P.
Kline, Paul. (1987). Philosophy, Psychology
British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. Vol. 38. No. 1. March,
(1971). Structure and Function of Fantasy. New York.
Peter. H. (1969). Image, Symbol and Person. The Strategy of Psychological Defense. Archives of General Psychiatry. 21. pp.392-406
Koestler, Arthur. (1964). The Act of Creation. Hutchinson
‘.... the fact that art and discovery draw on unconscious sources indicates that one aspect
of all creative activity is a regression to ontogenetically or philogenetically earlier levels, an escape from the constraints
of the conscious mind, with the subsequent release of creative potentials..." p.462
Kohut, H. (1964). Some Problems
of a Metapsychological
Formulation of Fantasy. International Journal of Psycho-analysis. Vol. XXXXV. pp. 199-202
H. (1972). Thoughts on Narcissism and Narcissistic Rage.
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol.27 pp.360-400
Kosslyn Stephen Michael. (1980). Image and Mind. Harvard
University Press. Cambridge, Massachussetts
Stephen Michael. (1981). The Medium and the Message in
Mental Imagery: A Theory. Psychological Review. Vol. 88. No.1.
‘A cognitive account of imagery is a theory about the functional capacities of the brain- the things
it can do- that are invoked during imagery. There are numerous ways to describe the range and kinds of functional capacities
involved in any given domain of processing, but most theorists have found it useful to describe these capacities in terms
of structures and processes. Let us distinguish between two kinds of structures, data structures and media, and two general
kinds of processes, comparisons and transformations. Data structures. Data Structures are the information- bearing representations
in any processing system,' p. 47
‘Media. A medium does not carry information in its own right. Rather,
a medium is a structure that supports particular kinds of data structures'.p.47
Comparison processes. These procedures
compare two data structures or parts thereof and return a match/ mismatch decision or a measure of the degree of similarity(
defined over a specific metric) between representations.
Transformation processes. There are two very general classes
of transformation processes, alterations and productions. Alteration transformations operate to alter a given data structure
by changing its contents (e.g., by adding or deleting an item on a list) or re-organizing it (e.g. by reordering items on
a list). Production transformations, in contrast, leave the initial data structure intact but use it as an impetus either
to replace or to supplement it with a new data structure.' pp 47-48
Kris, E. (1953). On preconscious mental processes
Psychoanalytic Explorations in Art. George Allen & Unwin Ltd. London, pp.303-318
Krystal, H. (1978). Trauma
and Affect. Psychoanalytic Study of
the Child. Vol.33, pp. 81-116
Lake, F. (1966). Clinical Theology: a theological and psychiatric
basis to clinical pastoral care.
Darton, Longman and Todd.
Landgarten, Helen B. (1981). Clinical Art Therapy. A
Comprehensive Guide. Branner-Mazel.
Lehman, Edward. (1949). Feeding Problems of Psychogenic Origin. A Study of the Literature. Psychoanalytic
Study of the Child. Vol. III-IV. pp. 461-488
Levy, David M. (1933). Use of Play Technique as an Experimental
Procedure. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.\/o\. 3. pp.266-77.
Levy, David M. (1938). Release Therapy. American
Orthopsychiatry. Vol. 9. pp713-737
‘Repetition in play and dream thrusts forward unsolved problems
until they are solved, and serves the same purpose as ideational processes; the forming of mental images( as memory, if of
the past; as imagination, if of events that have not taken place) so that problems can be solved without actually being experienced.
A child's play is often the working out of problems using concrete symbols.' p715
Levy, David M. (1945). Psychic Trauma
of Operations in Children,
and a Note on Combat Neurosis. American Journal of Diseases of
Children. LXIX. pp.7-25
Lippman Hyman S. (1956). Treatment of the Child in Emotional
Conflict. The Blakeston Division. Me Graw-Hill Book Company.
Inc. New York. Toronto. London
Lipton S. D. (1962). On the Psychology of Childhood Tonsillectomy.
Study of the Child .17 pp. 363-417
Lukianowicz, N. (1960). Visual Thinking and Similar Phenomena.
of Mental Science. 106, pp.979-1001
Maclean, Paul D. (1949). Psychosomatic Disease and the Visceral
No 6. pp. 338-353
McReynolds, Paul. (1976). Assimilation and Anxiety, in Emotions
and Anxiety. New Concepts,
Methods and Applications. Eds. Zuckerman, M. & Spielberger, C. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hillsdale, New Jersey
a certain amount of restructuring would then be required in order to assimilate the incongruent percepts. Thus novel input
serves as a kind of raw material, or fuel, to provide for an ongoing, continuing process of cognitive innovation.' p.51
M. S. (1953). On Child Psychosis and Schizophrenia.
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol.VII. pp.286-305
Bronislaw. (1924). Psychoanalysis and Anthropology.
Psyche 4. 293-332
Massie, H. M. and Rosenthal, J. (1984).
Childhood Psychosis in the
First 4 years of Life. McGraw Hill Inc
147. Meltzer, D. (1967). The Psychoanalytic Process.
Heinemann Medical Books Ltd. London
143. Miller Paul. (1969). Sense and Symbol. Staples Press
‘The neuron is
a binary computer which operates on an 'all-or-none principle', as originally formulated by Sherrington; either it
fires or does not fire, depending upon whether its threshhold is exceeded.' p.89. Reference to C. Sherrington. (1906).
The Integrative Action of the Nervous System. New Haven. Yale University
144. Milner, Marion. (Joanna
Field). (1950). On Not Being Able to Paint. Heinemann. London. 1971
‘Thus the frame marks off an
area within which what is perceived has to be taken symbolically while what is outside the frame is taken literally. Symbolic
of what? We certainly assume that it is symbolic of the feelings and ideas of whoever determined the pattern or form within
the frame.' p.157-158
145 Modell Arnold H.( 1970). The Transitional Object and the Creative Artist. Psychoanalytic Quarterly.
‘A necessary precondition for scientific creativity, a precondition that parallels the capacity
for mature love relationships, is the quality of fidelity. Those who have created scientific revolutions, such as Darwin and
Freud, have first shown a fidelity to, one could say a love of, the tradition that they subsequently transformed.' p.245
146. Montessori, M. (1965). Spontaneous Activity in Education. New York. Schocken
Moore, Terence. (1964). Realism
in Fantasy in Children's Play.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Vol. 5 pp. 15-36
Moore, Terence and Ucko, L. E. (1961). Four to Six. Constructiveness and Conflict in Meeting Doll Play Problems.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, pp. 21-47.
Mowrer, O. H. (1960). Learning Theory and the Symbolic Processes.
New York. Wiley
Murphy, William F. (1958). Character, Trauma and Sensory Perception. International Journal of Psycho-analysis. Vol. XXXIX.
151. Murstein B. I. (1956). Studies in Projection; a critique. Journal of Projective Techniques. Vol. 20.
152. Nagera H. (1969). Basic Psychoanalytic Concepts on the Theory of Dreams. Hampstead Clinic. Psychoanalytic
Library. George Allen and Unwin
Naumberg, M. (1954). Art as Symbolic Speech. Journal of Art and
Aesthetic Criticism. 13. pp.
Naumberg M. (1966).Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy: its
principles and practices. Grune and Stratton.
New York. London
Naumberg M. (1973). An Introduction to Art Therapy: studies of
the 'free' art expression
of behaviour problem children and
adolescents as a means of diagnosis and therapy. Revised edition. New York. London
Teachers College Press
Niederland, W. G. (1965). The Role of the Ego in the Recovery of
Early Memories. Psychoanalytic
Quarterly Vol. XXXIV. pp.564-571
Niederland W. G. (1943). The Earliest Dreams of a Young Child.
Vol. XII. pp. 190-208
Norman Elisabeth. (1948). The Play of a Psychotic Child. Journal
of Medical Psychology. Vol.
Novey, S. (1958). The Meaning of the Concept of Mental
Representations of Objects. Psychoanalytic
Quarterly 27. pp.57-79
‘The individuals evaluation of these internal representations of objects may vary widely,
or he may be unable to evaluate them at all. They will, however, have their influence without his conscious awareness; in
fact their influence tends to be greater when they are not conscious. His inner experience of such objects is, however, of
prime significance in determining both his degree of internal comfort and his capacity to carry out more or less integrated
motor performance including social behaviour.' p.60
160. Novick, J. and Kelly, K. (1970). Projection and Externalisation.
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol. 25. pp.69-95
161. Oberndorf, C. P. (1950). The Role of Anxiety in Depersonalization.
International Journal of Psycho-analysis. Vol. XXXI. pp. 1-5
Paivio A. (1970). On The Significance of Imagery. Psychological
Bulletin No 73. pp385-392
Paivio Allan. (1971). Imagery and Verbal Processes. Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, Inc. New
Paivio. Allan. (1986). Metal Representations: a dual coding
approach. New York, Oxford University
‘The non verbal and verbal symbolic systems are assumed to be functionally independent in the sense
that one system can be active without the other, or both can be active in parallel,' p. 62
Peller, L. E. (1954).
Libidinal Phases, Ego Development, and Play.
Psycho-analytic Study of the Child. Vol. IX. pp.178-198
E. (1955). Libidinal Development as Reflected in Play.
Psychoanalysis. 3. pp.3-12
Peller L. E. (1952). Models
of Children's Play. Journal of Mental
Hygiene. 36. pp.66-89
Peller L E. (1959). Daydreams and Children's Favourite
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child . Vol. XIV. pp.414-433
Penfield, W. (1952). Memory Mechanisms. Archives of
and Psychiatry. Vol. 67. February, pp. 178-198
Peto A. (1959). Body Image and Archaic Thinking. International
Journal of Psychoanalysis . Vol. XXXX. pp. 223-231
Piaget, J. (1971). Mental Imagery in the Child, a Study of the
Development of Imaginal Representation. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Pine Fred. (1974). On The Concept
of "Borderline" in Children.
Psycho-analytic Study of the Child. Vol. 29. pp.341-368
‘All of the borderline
children I have described show developmental failures and aberrations of a sort that, when severe enough, would warrant considering
them psychotic. That no sharp line has been drawn, I suggest, reflects the fact that no sharp line exists.' p.366
Rapaport D. (1942). Principles Underlying Projective Techniques.
Character and Personality. Vol.X. No 3 March, pp.213-
Rank Otto. (1929). The Trauma of Birth. New York; Harcourt,
Read. H. (1943) Education through Art. Faber and Faber
‘The activity now to be described
is a primary, or rudimentary form of unconscious mental activity, not hitherto posited in psychology. I am going to suggest
that there is an elementary stage during the course of which there occurs in the unconscious a formation or crystallisation
of plastic images out of the basic
Read H. (1951).Psycho-analysis
And The Problem of Aesthetic
Value. International Journal of Psychoanalysis . Vol XXXII. pp. Part 2.73-82
substrate for thought." pp.250-251
178. Riviere J. (1952). The
Unconscious Phantasy of an Inner World
Reflected in Examples from English Literature. International Journal of Psycho-analysis.
Vol. XXXIII. pp.160-180
‘But if we feel wrong, guilty and bad, then one of the purposes for which we need or use our
internal objects is that of attributing our own badness to them inside us. Thus our narcissism is relieved and enabled to
escape blemish in some degree.' p. 162
‘The words 'good' and 'bad' are obviously used
here in the simplest possible sense- in fact as a small child would use them- as expressing the quality of feeling concerned
and unrelated to any other standard. Moral judgements, for instance, as to what is good or bad do not necessarily coincide
with what is spontaneously felt by the person in himself to be so often quite the contrary. The same applies to matters of
health, of pleasure, of taste; the sole criterion is the pleasure-principle.
'In the cradle we were all originally
in the condition of the despised person who 'knows nothing about' any external criteria but 'simply knows what
he likes', namely, what gives him pleasure or unpleasure; and however much the forms taken by our pleasures may alter
as life proceeds, it is fundamentally always on the same principle that our good and bad experiences arise.' Note 3. p
Roffwarg, H., et al. (1966). Ontogenetic Development of the Human
Sleep Dream Cycle. Science 152. pp.604-619
David, L. (1961). Perception, Reality Testing, and
Symbolism. Psyycho-analytic Study of the Child. Vol. XVI. pp.73-89.
Rose, G. J. (1960). Body Ego and Reality. International Journal of
Psychoanalysis. Vol. 47. pp.502-509
H. (1964). On the Psychopathology of Narcissism: A
clinical Approach. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol.
Rothenberg Albert. (1979). Einstein's Creative Thinking and the
General Theory of Relativity:
A Documented Report. American Journal of Psychiatry. 136:1. January, pp.38-43
‘Because of his importance and
the exalted nature of his accomplishments, many speculations have arisen about the roots of Einstein's genius and creativity.
Much has been made of the rather remarkable but now generally known facts that Einstein learned to speak late, did not perform
well in his early school years and was not highly proficient in verbal skills throughout his life. Emphasis has been placed
on the visual nature of his thinking, because visual thinking is often erroneously considered more primitive and more characteristic
of childhood than verbal thinking, some have asserted that Einstein thought as a child thinks. This type of conclusion roughly
coincides with many psychoanalytic formulations about creativity that postulate the regressive, primitive roots of creative
‘The happiest thought of Einstein's life as described here was the formulation that provided
the foundation for the general theory of relativity. From the exposition, it is clear that this "happiest thought"
was his underscored (here italicised) phrase, "Thus, for an observer in free fall from the roof of a house there exists,
during his fall, no gravitational field.' p. 39
‘The idea of a person falling from the roof of a house suggests
a visual conception. Rather than the primary process visual imagery emphasized by regression theories of creativity, however,
Einstein's probable visualization in this case very likely involved another type of high-level creative thinking (Homospatial
thinking), which I have described extensively elsewhere.' p. 41
Rothenberg, A., (1976). Homospatial Thinking in Creativity.
Archives of General Psychiatry. 33. pp.17-26
Rozin, Paul. (1976). The evolution of Intelligence and Access to
the Cognitive Unconscious, in Progress in Psychobiology and
Physioogical Psychology. Ed. Sprague, J.M. and Epstein,
A. N. Academic Press. New York. San Francisco. London
Rycroft C (1956). Symbolism and its Relationship to the Primary
and Secondary Processes. International Journal of Psycho-analysis. Vol XXXVII. pp.137-146
Sandier, J. and Rosenblatt,
B. (1962). The Concept of the
Representational World. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol. XVII.
specialized part of the representational world consists of symbols for things, activities, and relationships, and provides
the furniture for the ego function of thinking.' p.133
‘The construction of the representational world
is a product of ego functions, and the self and object representations are part of the representational world.
world might be compared to a stage set within a theatre. The characters on the stage represent the child's various objects,
as well as the child himself The theatre which contains the stage would correspond to aspects of the ego, and the various
functions such as scene shifting, raising or lowering the curtain, and all the machinery auxiliary to the actual stage production
would respond to those ego functions of which we are not normally aware.' p. 134
‘It is a function of the ego
to construct a representational world from the original undifferentiated sensorium of the infant.' p.136
representational world provides the material for the ego's perpetual structuring of sensory impulses, for imagination
and fantasy, for direct and modified action, for language, symbols, and for trial action in thought,' p.136
know, however, that distortions in the object representation accompany the process of introjection. In particular the child
may transfer much of his own aggression to the parental representations, so that they can appear to him to be far more severe
and punitive than his parents ever were in reality.' p.138
Sandier, J and Nagera, H. (1963). Aspects of the Metapsychology
Fantasy. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol. XVIII. pp.159-194.
Sargant W. and Slater, E. (1940). Acute
War Neuroses. The Lancet.
July 6. pp. 6097-6098
190. Schachtel, E. G. (1950). Projection and its relation to Character attitudes
and creativity in the kinesthetic responses. Psychiatry. 13. pp.69-100.8
197. Schafer, R. (1972). Internalisation; Process or Fantasy.
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol. 27. pp.411-436
Schaefer, Charles. (1976). The Therapeutic Use of Child's
New York Jason Aronson
Schnier, Jacques. (1957). The Function and Origin of Form. Journal
Aesthetics and Art Criticism. Vol. XVI. pp.66-75
Schur, M. (1955). Comments on the Metapsychology of
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Vol. X. pp.119-164
Searl, M. N. (1933). Play and Reality and Aggression. International
Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. XIV. pp.310-320
Sechehaye. M. A. (1951). Symbolic Realization. International
Universities Press, Inc. New York
Segal. H. (1952). A Psychoanalytic Approach to Aesthetics.
Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. XXXIII. pp. 196-207
Segal, Hanna. (1986). Notes on Symbol Formation. In The Work
Hanna Segal. Free Association Books. Maresfield Library London
Sharpe, E. F. (1949). Dream
Analysis. London. Hogarth Press
The ego becomes strengthened by the recovery of a past it is no longer necessary
to deny or ignore both on its own account or on the account of others. The past becomes assimilated and mastered through emotional
re-living and understanding, and the personality becomes enriched through a transvaluation of past experiences. Not only is
the psychical ego extended but bodily powers themselves are enhanced, recovered or developed.' p. 17
Sheehan, Peter, W.
(1972). The Function and Nature of Imagery.
Academic Press. New York and London
Silberer, H. (1951).
On Symbol Formation in Organisation and
Pathology of Thought. Ed. Rapaport, D. N. Y. Columbia University Press
L. (1974). Imagery and Daydream Methods in
Psychotherapy and Behaviour Modification. Academic Press. New York. San Francisco.
Spencer, E. and Pynoos, S. (eds.) (1985). Post traumatic Stress
Disorder in Children, in Progress in
Psychiatry. American Psychiatric
Spitz, R. (1951). The Psychogenic Diseases in Infancy, an Attempt
at their Etiologic Classification. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child.
Vol. VI. pp.255-278
211. Sperber, Dan.
(1975). Rethinking Symbolism. Cambridge. Cambridge Universities Press
Sperling Melitta. (1978). Psychosomatic
Disorders in Childhood.
Jason Aronson, Inc
Stern Max M. (1953). Trauma and Symptom Formation.
Journal of Psycho-analysis. Vol. XXXIV. pp. 202-218
Stern Max, M. (1968). Fear of Death and Trauma. International
Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. 49, pp.457-463
Stern, Max M. (1953). Trauma, Projective Technique, and Analytic
Profile. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, pp.221-252
The function of reparative mastery is the retroactive attempt to magically
correct traumatic experiences which could not be avoided.' p.223
‘In the analytic situation the renewed magic mastery
through painting seems to allay enough anxiety to enable the patient to relinquish repression and to integrate the previously
experienced traumata and the impulses connected with them.' p.229
‘Magic mastery through pictorial representation
is a regression to the identical stage of adaptation to reality in which the original traumata, now pressing for reparation,
occurred mainly to the preverbal phase. The technique used in therapeutic painting is on a level with primitive pictorial
thought. It is of advantage that both as to mode of thinking and of expression, it is on the same plane as unconscious thought
form of thinking is alien to the ego and therefore a certain degree of effort and practice is required to overcome ego resistance,
not only in the patient, but judging by my experience in the analyst as well.' p.230
Stern, Max M. (1951). Anxiety,
Trauma and Shock. Psychoanalytic
Quarterly XX. pp.179-203
Stern Max. M. (1951). Pavor Nocturnus. International
Symons, N. J. (1925). A Note on the Formation of Symbols. Vol.VI.
International Journal of Psychoanalysis, pp.440-443
Thomas, Ruth et al. (1966). Comments on Some Aspects of Self and Object.
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. XXI. pp.527-586
F. (1978). Psychotic Elements in the Neurotic Disorders of
Children. Journal of Child Psychotherapy. Vol. 4. No. 4.
‘The usual distinction between psychosis and neurosis is that in psychosis awareness of commonly agreed
reality is massively blocked or distorted, and in neurosis it is less so. However, in working with neurotic children I have
invariably come upon a "pocket" of functioning in which awareness of reality was so blocked and distorted that it
justified the term ‘ psychotic'.' p.5
213. Ullman, Elinor. (1971). Psychiatry and Art. Vol. 3. Karger Basel.
‘It is widely recognised today that change may occur without verbally articulated insights and that
involvement in activities reaching beyond the self may bring about rather than follow internal change.'
the terminology of Susanne Langer the business of the arts is to give form to feeling: and this is the basic method whereby
man creates his world. Every child needs to be an artist in so fart as he must find a means to conceive himself and the world
around him and to establish a relation between the two. In the beginning the inner chaos of feelings and impulse is matched
by a chaos of sensory impressions equally overwhelming. (But the task does not end with childhood and the arts serve throughout
life as the meeting ground of the inner and outer
214. Varendonck, J. (1921).
The Psychology of Daydreams. London. Allen and Unwin
215 Vernon, M. D. (1939-40). The Relation of
Cognition and Phantasy in Children. British Journal of Psychology.Vol. XXX. pp.273-94.and [1940-41]. Vol. XXXI. pp. 1-21
Robert. (1933). Psychoanalytic Theory of Play.
Psychoanalytic Quarterly. Vol. II pp.208-224
Wallach M.A. and Kogan, N.
(1965). Modes of Thinking in Young
Children. Rhinehart and Winston
Weissman Philip. (1966). Psychological Concomitants
Functioning in Creativity. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. 49. pp.464-470
Wickes, F. G., (1940).
The Inner World of Childhood. Appleton
Yahalom Itamar. . Sense, Affect, and Image in
of the Symbolic Process. International Journal of Psycho-analysis. Vol. 48. pp.373-383
mental development can be meaningfully set against the classical model of thinking processes as elaborated by
It begins with mental registrations (ideas and images), as
preceding mental representations, which in turn make possible
mankind's unique ability to form and use symbols. However, mental registration cannot be transformed into mental representation
except as raw sense data are modified by the individual in the light of his own experiences. Each of us must create his own
perception of the world. Texture must become feeling; sound must become listening; sight must become seeing; and the sensation
must become perception. The integration of these processes creates the core of the healthy self.' p.382